Maryland State Archives
Maryland Colonization Journal Collection
MSA SC 4303

msa_sc4303_scm11070-0005

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Maryland State Archives
Maryland Colonization Journal Collection
MSA SC 4303

msa_sc4303_scm11070-0005

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MARYLAND COLONIZATION JOURNAL. CONDUCTED IIY THE COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATIONS 01 THE MARYLAND STATE COLONIZATION SOCIETY, UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE MANAGERS OF THE STATE PUND. Vol. 1. Baltimore, May, 1835. No. 1. When Gratuitous please Circulate. PROSPECTUS. The Board of Managers of the Maryland State Colonization Society, and the Board of Managers of the State Fund, have resolved to publish a quarterly journal, for the purpose of diffusing information concerning the prin- ciples nod progress of the Maryland plan of Colonization. The Journal will also contain occasional notices of the operations of the friends of colonization in other parts of the Union. It will be published, at least, once a quarter, and sometimes oftcner. Persons wishing to receive it regularly as published, may become subscribers by paying fifty cents per annum in advance. Donations for the support of tbe paper will bo thankfully re- ceived. The friends of colonization through- out the state will confer ¦ great favour by transmitting for Hie Journal any intelligence winch may promote the cause it advocates. ET All communications are to lie directed to the -MARYLAND COLONIZATION JOURNAL, Office of the Maryland State Colonization Society, Baltimore." -llanajrers of tlie .Maryland Slate Fund, Under "An Act relating to the People of Colour in this State." CHARLES HOWARD, ClIARLKS C HARPER, PETER HOFFMAN. Maryland Male Colonization Society. President. BENJAMIN C. HOWARD. Vice Presidents. Dr. Thos. E. Bond, Solomon Etting, Nathaniel Williams, Peter Hoffman, Luke Tieriian, Charles Howard. Manager!. Charles O. Harper, Joseph K- Stapleton, Samuel D. Walker, Dr. John Fouerden, Dr. J. H. Briscoe, Joint G. Proud. William G. Read, Franklin Anderson, William G. Harrison, George Kevser. Dr. Philip R. Hoffman. RouciiT Mkki.k, Treasurer. HtJOM D. Evans, Hec. Sec'ry. John H. U. Lvirouk, Cor. Sec'ry. Uki: Tiiknan, ) %nnMn **" °'1 "."-'" i Committee. ritAMii.iM Anderson,) John Fonekden, i Committee J. 11. Biiiscoe, > M Philip Rooehs Hofi.man, ) Publications. John G. Proud, 1 Committee Roiilrt Micki.k, on Fkanui.in Andibson, j .'{/counts. Agent for the Stale if Maryland. Ktv. W'm. Mc Ki.nni v. I,mral Agenl. Giokge Kkvskr. Agent for tkc JV'i'ui F.n^land States. Rev. S. R. Wvnkoop. Governor of Maryland in Liberia. Dr. James Hail. Missionary at Cape Palmas from the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. Rev. J. Lt.itiiuoN Wilson. HISTORICAL SKETCH. Compiled for the Maryland Colonization Journal The Maryland State Colonization Society, was nicorperuted at the session 1831—32 of the Legislature. At the MOM session the state embarked nobly in the great cause, and made its iiitmitieeut donation of two hundred thousand dollar*, for the transportation and re- ception offemigrauts in Africa. It was early Ibreseeli that a difficulty would arise in tlie limited capacity of the original set- tlements at Liberia to receive emigrunts from MarylauJ to the extent that, herealtcr, might be desirable. The parent society, acting for the enure Union, was bound to apportion the number »f emigrants that Liberia was capable of accommodating, among the appl,cants from the different stales, when, if the quota of Ma- ryland should not be equal to her demand, a check might be given to emigration, at times when it might be most prejudicial. With a vie ...therefore, to this anticipated emergency, theNjnte society determined to form a new co- lony, which, increasing iu its capacity to re- ceive in the g^ine proportion that the spirit of emigration increased at home, would be the means of placing the slate beyond the reach of any circumstances over which it, or the state society, could have no control. There were reasons, besides that above mentioned, winch particularly moved toe state society to undertake, by itself, the establish- ment of a new settlement, under ita own aus- pices. It bid so happened, that the original colony of Lueria had assumed rather a com- mercial character in the courte of its brief. but valuable, existence. The wealth, that some of its settlers had acquired, was owing to the trade which they carried on with the; natives and with the vessels that frequented their harbour. It was thu desire of the Ma- ryland Stale Society to see agriculture made the object of primary importance,—not only as placing the means of their own sustenance in the hands of the colonists, and rendering them independent of Minnie places or the na- tive inhabitants for liiod; but because niuo- teiiths, if not a far greater proportion, of the emigrants from this country would make bet- ter fanners than traders:—besides which, in- stead of having all their bad feelings brought into pluy by the artiticcs of a petty nutive traffic, engendering vicious habits by the in- tervals of idleness that it afforded, the emi- grants, finding employment, in agricultural pursuits, from the moment of thuir arrival, and occupied with healthful labour, would have their minds m the best slate to receive and preserve those sentiments of religion and morality, which it was the wish of the state society should form the character of the popu- lation. It wus believed, also, that an agricul- tural community, spreading itself to the inte- rior, would not only present better examples to the surrounding heathen, whom it was de- signed to bring to Gospel light, but would afford greater facilities (or a rapidly increasing emigration from this country, than could be afforded by trading town*, however prosper- ous lliey might be. Uf thu soundness of these viowa, the Board of Managers had ample as- surance, in the endeavours of the parent so- ciety to introduce an agricultural spirit hit" Liberia. There was another object, which the Board of Managers thought of much importance, and which they proposed to combine with emigra- tion from Maryland; and which could best be effected ol tlie commencement of a settlement, and tor which exclusive control was neces- sary. This was the establishment of the tem- perance principle, us a fundamental one—pro- hibiting any person from leaving Maryland fur Africu, who would not first ugree to forbear the use of ardent spirit, except in case of sick- ness; and holding any person ineligible to office in the colonial government, who either used or trafficked in it. An opportunity wus offered lor founding a nation upon the princi- ple of temperance, and the Board of Managers thought it wise to lay hold of it. It must not for a moment be suppose], that, in determining to form it new settlement, under the auspices of the state soeitty uud subject to its control, the Board of Managers intended either rivalry or opposition, in the remotest degree, to the American Coljinza- tion Society. On the contrary, Hie Boiird of Managers held in too high esteem the labours of the fathers of colonization—they found themselves profiting by their experience too often, to be inllueiiced by any other motive than the ardent desire to co-operate in the most efficient manner in the great objeut ol their labours. This, it was believed, after the experience ol'fifteen years, since the founding of the institulion, could be best eff'icted by each state undertaking the scheme of colonization within its conhnes. This hail been done by the Maryland society in 1831, with results that never could have been, ami- cipated, under the system which imposed upon the Bourd at Washington, duties, in re- gard to informing the people, that could only be accomplished by state societies, not. exist- ing for the collection of funds only, but inte- rested in the application of those funds, for tbe immediute benefit of the contributors. It wus ^lso believed, that the entire success t if coloni- zation in Maryland would 'I" mora n> unhst the whole country in Hie cause, thaw the re- moval of twice the number of emigrants in the same period to Africa,talus indiscriminately wherever offered throughout the Union. That Maryland might be made a nou- daveholding state, was admitted; and the Board of Mana- gers, in determining to establish a new settle- ment, felt satisfied that they v.ero adopting the best, if not the only menus, by which, under existing circumstances, it could be ac- complished. The next question that presented itself was the selection of a site for a new colony; and, atler thu most full and careful deliberation, the Board of Managers selected Cape Palmus, or its immediate vicinity. The coast of Africa, after pursuing a south-east direct..... /'rum the Rio Grande, passing by Sierra Le- one, Cape Mount, Monrovia, Grand Bassu, and Cestos river, here turns to the east-north- east, towards Cape Three Points, the mouth of the Niger, and Fernando Po in the Bight of Biafra. The return voyuge from Cupe Palmas, to the United States or Europe, is at all times easy, the trade winds being constant and regular from the north-west: but from the leeward, or eastward, towards the mouth of the Niger, out of the reach of the trades, the prevalence of calms and currents, renders a return to the windward round Cape Palmas extremely long and tedious. The position of Cape Palmas alone, is therefore, sufficient to make it one day, a most important commercial depot. All the vessels, destined for the Niger, must pass by it on their way from Europe or America; und the delay and uncer- tainty of a voyage to the east of it will, no doubt, in many cases, make it the place of de- posite or exchange for European or American manufactures, the further transportation of wtucli will cither be, by land towards the in- tenor^or by the coasting trade of the colony to the great river of Central Alrica. On the :!8tli of November, 1838, the brig Ann, Captain Laugdon, sailed from Baltimore, Willi a full cargo of goods and provisions, and eighteen emigrants, lor Cape I'alinas. The expedition was under the charge of Dr.Jamea Hill, a gentleinan whose experience in Africa admirably qualified linn tor Ins situation. The Reverend John Horsey accompanied him as his assistant, and the Reverend Messrs. Wil- son and Wynkoop, ugcnts of the American Hoard of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, took passage in the Ann, with a view of as- certaining the tiuiesH of Cape l'ahnas as u place for missionary labours. On the "5th of January, the Ann reached Monrovia, and rc- inuyied there ten days, taking on board thirty old settlers, nineteen of whom were adult males well acclimated. On the fifth of Fe- bruary, the brig reached 14assa,aud reccivuiL' five more recruils, sailed on the sixth for the poiut of her ultimata destination. Dr. Hall liad sent word to the kings of the vicinity ol the purpose that brought him to Africa, ai.d who he reached the Cape, which he did on the eleventh of February, he found tlietu pre- pared to treat with him. On the thirteenth ¦ grand palaver or council was held, at which the only ditlicully that presented itself grew out of Dr. Hall's refusal to make rum a part ol the consideration of the proposed purchase. "His master," so he told the naliviw, ••ifiJ mm ¦ tad luni there to give rum for their land. Kuiij made the black man a fool, and then the white man 0heated him. He came as a friend to do them good—not as an enemy to hurt them." Arguments like these, which he tool; care to have well explained by the head men of the towns who had been previously made to understand them, joined to the great desire of the natives that the Americans should he as one people with them, overcame the dillicul- ties which a*, first threatened to break up the palaver, and the land was sold by the kings to the Stale Society, for a quantity of trade goods fully satisfactory to them, though per- haps small when the ultimate and probable Importance ot the settlement was considered. The kings reserved to their people the use ol their villages ami fields, and stipulated, that within a year u free public school should be established in each of the principal towns. The deed of cession is dated on the lSlh Fe- bruary, 1834, und is signed by l'ariiinh. king ot Cape Pahnas—Weah Boleo, king of Grab- wk—and Baphro, king of (irand Cavally. as soon as the purchase was completed. Dr. Hail, auuiuiiisuud of tiiu necessity of speedy operations, by the approach ot the rainy sea- son, commenced discharging the brig, clearing tin- land on tiie Cape where he proposed to lay out his town,and erecting shelters for his poo- pie. As soon as practicable, the vessel was sent back to Monrovia and Basso, for the fa- milies of the recruits from those places, and by the time she returned—so actively had the work been pursued—a shelter was provided for all the settlers. The discharge Or the brig was completed, and on the ltnh March she sailed on her return. The Hoard had sent out the frame and materials of an agency house, which was now erected, and in less than a month after the first landing, the settlement began to wear the appearance of a compact and comfortable village. Messrs. Wilson and Wynkoop, after remaining at the Cape long enough to become acquainted, and highly pleased with its situation and its fitness for missionary labour, then returned to Monro- via, and from thence to this country. Mr. Mersey, alter aiding Dr. Hall in the arduous duties of the first lauding, and attending to the erection of the agency hou-e, also left the Cape aid came to the United States. Before bis departure he erected a meeting house of the Methodist denomination, the first temple to the Almighty that rose upon the territory of the society. Dr. Hall now found himself with about eighty persons of all ages—a mere handful of urn among the thousands around him—and s«t himself to work to get them established on tleir own lots and fortifications erected for tlieir defence. At the date of advices, Almost inh, 18-14, he had built a tort, which fully cuiiinundod the native town id' Cape l'ahnas, iii.fi two small towns on the beach—as well as tie landing place;—and thirty-seven lots were occupied. The gardens already tepefied the emigrants Willi their vegetables,and the agent was about commencing the location of the farm lots, so as to enable the settlers to begin tc clear and crop before the rainy seuson M t il. At the end of four months from the day (/landing, the emigrants had all passed through tie sickness, which all experience on first re- sding in Africa, without the loss of ¦ single udividual. There is no similar instance on record, where death has not broken into the nnksofthe pioneers of civilization. The only jorsoti who is yet known to have died, is a do hi of less than two years old, of the dysen- :rry. Messrs. Wilson and Wynkoop and Mr. Jersey, as well as the captains of the vessels, vhich have visited Cape I'almas, speak in flat- tering terms of the healthiness of the situation, ind fully corroborate the testimony which, in the first instance, induced the Board to select it. The brig Arm, which returned to the United »tes in April,brought the first news from the new colony—and the Board immediately pre- pared and despatched a vessel with supplies, both to support the emigrants already there, and to put means into Dr. Hall's hands, to pre- pare for the reception of new ones, and to meet the expenses of the establishment with- out drawing upon the society at home. The Sarah and Priscilla sailed Iroin Baltimore on the eighth of Juno tk*l. On her airival at the Cape she found the settlement in an excellent condition, and Dr. ilullslil! well provided with mentis, from what was left of the shipment by the Ann, winch lie had husbanded with great care and economy. Every body was in good health, and no one more w than Dr. Hall him- self. There were ample preparations tor the reception of 100 or 150 new emigrants, and the work of surveying and laying out the farm lots had been actively urged forward. The natives were at peace with the colonists, and although inclined to be exacting when oppor- tunity offered, had been kept in urder by the linn and unyielding, yet mild and conciliatory course of the agent. The emigrants generally were well satisfied with their situation, and there was as little discontent expressed as could have been expected among men who had set themselves to subdue the tbrest and the wild. Without waiting for the return of the Sarah and Priscilla, the Board dispatched on the 1-lth of December last, the brig Bourne, with fifty-eight emigrants, and supplies corres- ponding, Kir the Cape. 'I'liey were under the iminediaie <'barge of the RoV. Mr. (jould.a mi- ni.!.! uf itiv Mnthmiimt iipi«opul Church, long a zealous labourer in this state for the improvement of kef coloured people, possess- ing great inllueiice among them, and from whoso good sense and abilities the Hoard ex- pect to derive most important advantage*. He will remain for a time in the Colony ami return to this country to take an active part in the cause here. The Bourne arrived at New York a few days ago and brought highly interesting des- patches from Capo Pultuns, which appear in another part of tJns paper. • It cannot be supposed that the State So- ciety will be now left to sulfur tor the want of pecuniary aid, by those who have heretofore so largely contributed to the cause when it was far more doubtful than at present. In proportion as the State Society can procure lunds to be applied in Africa, will the prospe- rity of the settlements there be assured; not funds merely for transportation and support, but for the countless wants of a new commu- nity of emigrants in a strange land__whose first steps must, of necessity, be unsteady, and who feel so sensibly the importance of even the slightest assistance that is afforded them in the outset. The Board enrnestlv appeal to those fur whose more immediate benefit they labour, for pecuniary aid. They appeal to all the friends of freedom in this wide country. They have surmounted the most difficult part of their undertaking; let them not be stayed in their course for the want of means to move for- ward, when every thing invites them to advance. It may be proper to explain here how pri- vate Contribution can be Jewed, since the ¦tail has made an appropriation of the public funds. Bfl tlie ait rttaling t